In conducting studies as part of the GRAS process, researchers found that allulose has no impact on blood glucose and actually suppresses glycemic response of other glycemic carbohydrates when tested with carbohydrates or within a meal. When tested as a single ingredient, allulose is shown to be non-glycemic.
Three studies highlighted below used various scientific models and found the same conclusion — allulose does not impact blood glucose:
- In a crossover study with 20 healthy adults after an overnight fast, 7.5 g of allulose intake did not influence blood glucose or insulin concentration; 5 and 7.5 g of allulose intake suppressed glycemic response (postprandial blood glucose) and insulinemic response (postprandial insulin) of 75 g of co-ingested maltodextrin .6. Iida T, Kishimoto Y, Yoshikawa Y, Hayashi N, Okuma K, Tohi M, Yagi K, Matsuo T, Izumori K. Acute D-psicose administration decreases the glycemic responses to an oral maltodextrin tolerance test in normal adults. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2008; 54:511-514.
- Another clinical study tested 5 g allulose in tea with a standard meal after an overnight fast in 15 adults diagnosed with borderline diabetes and 11 adults with normal glycemia. This treatment suppressed glycemic response (postprandial glucose) but not insulinemic response (postprandial insulin) of the standard meal in subjects with normal glycemia and in those with borderline diabetes compared to a meal without allulose .7. Hayashi N, Iida T, Yamada T, Okuma K, Takehara I, Yamamoto T, Yamada K, Tokuda M. Study on the postprandial blood glucose suppression effect of D-psicose in borderline diabetes and the safety of long-term ingestion by normal human subjects. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2010; 74:510-519.
- In another human pilot study supported by Tate & Lyle, an allulose manufacturer, ten healthy adults were given 25 g allulose or 25 g glucose in a cross-over design after a 12 to 14 hour fast. Results showed that when subjects consumed allulose, blood glucose response did not rise above baseline for two hours following the dose. 8. Kendall C, Wolever T, Jenkins A et al. Glycemic Index Laboratories, Toronto, Canada. May 2014.